WEEK 10 responses

Part II
What is a Gran-negative organism? How does the structure of a Gram-negative organism contribute to its virulence?Gran-negative bacteria cause infections and are resistant to multiple drugs and most antibiotics. These bacteria have built-in abilities to find new ways to become resistance an can pass along their genetic material. The outer membrane of Gram-negative organisms contains lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids and contribute to its virulence. LPS is toxic and is classified as an endotoxin that elicits a strong immune response when infecting organisms.
What is an antibiotic? Which class of antibiotics works best for Bordetella pertussis?Antibiotics are any substance that inhibits the growth and replication of a bacterium or kills it. For Bordetella pertussis, the class of antibiotics that works best are Azithromycin, Erythromycin, and Clarithromycin.
Part III
What is a vaccine?A vaccine contains the same germs that cause a disease that have been killed or weakened in order to stimulate an individual’s immune system to produce antibodies.
Compare the difference between a cellular and acellular vaccine.Cellular vaccines are made from inactivated Bordetella Pertussis bacteria while acellular vaccines are created with inactivated pertussis toxin and one or more bacterial components……response 2:
1. Why is it difficult to grow Bordetella pertussis in a laboratory?-Bordetella pertussis is a gram-negative bacterium and is the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough. Pertussis is respiratory disease that can be transferred from an infected person to others. As mentioned in the passage, the bacteria grows at 35-37 degrees which makes it very difficult because of the specific temperature required to grow. It is imperative that the media in the laboratory is made up of potato fusion, peptic digest from animal tissue and sheep blood also including many more. All these factors make it very difficult to grow the bacteria in a laboratory.
3. Discuss and evaluate the methods used to identify Bordetella pertussis.-There are several methods used to identify the bacteria. In many cases it appears smooth, raised and glistening with a zone of hemolysis. This is done through biochemical tests and direct fluorescent including serologic tests as well.
PART III1. What is a vaccine?-A vaccine is a substance described to help build up antibodies against the bacteria which minimizes the spread or growth of the bacteria. In this case, it is created by growing the bacteria to build the foundation of the vaccine. It Is explained in the article how the vaccine can have numerous side effects in the process such a high fevers, however an acellular vaccine has much less concentrated form than that found in whole-cell vaccines which reduced the side effects.
2. Compare the differences between a cellular and an acellular vaccine.-Cellular and acellular vaccines are both capable of generating high levels of antibodies against bacteria presented. There are multiple differences and the first being that acellular was created as an alternative to the whole-cell vaccine, including that it is also safer than the cellular. Although acellular has a positive in the reduction of side effects, it was made an alternative because the protection that it has against the bacteria does not last as long as it should.