The chemical basis of life

What do different isotopes of an element have in common and how do they differ? Discuss the applications of isotopes.
Discuss the arrangement of electrons in a phosphorus atom using the terms electron shell, valence shell, 2 electrons, 8 electrons, valence electrons, low energy, nucleus, high energy.
Discuss the following reaction: K Cl → KCl. Include a description of the electron arrangements of the reactants and products and use the terms reactants, product, ionic bond, ionic compound, positive, negative, valence electrons, and valence shell.
Identify the reactants and product in the following reaction: C 2H2 → CH4 (Methane). Include a description of the electron arrangement of methane and use the terms covalent bond, share electrons, pair of electrons, valence electrons, and valence shell.
Discuss the structure of a water molecule, why it is a polar molecule, and how it forms hydrogen bonds.
Discuss how a water dissolves salts in solution using sodium chloride as an example. Also distinguish between hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds with regard to solvency.
Discuss water’s high heat capacity and how it minimizes extreme fluctuations in temperature. Also discuss water’s high heat of vaporization and how it contributes to regulating temperature.
Define pH, acids, bases, neutral solutions, and buffers. Research and discuss why it is important for our blood to be buffered.