Engineering Principles of Biorefineries

Solutions must be typed. Handwritten solutions will not be accepted!
You are the engineer working in a plant and are responsible for the operation of a chemical reactor. The feed to this reactor contains SO2, but as far as you know, the SO2 does not participate in any of the reactions in this system. As part of your monitoring devices, you have rotameters measuring the total volumetric flow rate of the feed and effluent streams (L/min). You also have the ability to measure the concentrations of each stream (mol/L) using a gas chromatograph.
A new operator comes to work with you, and as soon as he comes in, he claims that the SO2must be reacting within the unit. He shows you that he calculated the molar flow rate of SO2by multiplying the volumetric flow rate and concentration for each stream, and found out that the SO2molar flow rate in the effluent is 20 % lower than in the feed. After thinking carefully about the problem, what is your response to the operator? Is he correct? Why or why not? If not, then clearly provide all the possible alternative explanations to explain the data.
Please design an experiment(for instance, using a new device)that you could use to confirm your hypothesis, whether you agree or disagree with him. Provide detailed explanations for each of the questions presented above. It is important that you base your arguments on calculations, applying the concepts learned in class.
Please provide EITHER one explanation involving two experiments or provide two explanations involving one experiment.
Please include a drawing of the process flow.
You can create any data for this but you must provide the (make-believe) data. You can even say that the rotameter is faulty as long as you provide data.
THIS ASSIGNMENT IS ABOUT PROCESS FLOW SO IF YOU ARE NOT FLUENT IN THIS, THEN PLEASE DO NOT TAKE THIS ASSIGNMENT.

Easy Mass Spectroscopy 4 problems

Each spectrum should be fully annotated and each is worth 12.5 points for a total of 50 for the assignment.
What is M , M 1 and M 2? Label these on spectrum.
Calculate number carbons and nitrogen and using the equation. Start by assuming zero nitrogens; if the number of carbons does not come out to be a whole number, use the remainder to justify calculating number of nitrogens. This will not work out perfectly every time! Remember that these will be approximate depending on the signal intensity of the M peak and the presence of an [M-1] peak that can skew the isotope ratios. If this does not work out, use the value as an approximation to help guide your structure characterization.
Calculate the number of oxygens using the equation. If there is no M 2 peak, state this. If the value is too low to be accurate, use it as an indicator for presence/absence of oxygen. This will not work out every time but will be used as a guide to determine chemical formula.
Check the nitrogen rule – does it make sense with the M you observe and your calculations for N?
Check whether fragments are even/odd and whether that matches with even/odd M
Determine chemical formula – does it add up to M ?
Calculate degree of unsaturation – does this make sense with fragments observed?
Draw structures for fragments on the spectrum – make sure they are charged and that you consider the scale is m/z, not just mass.
At the higher mass end, include significant neutral losses, such as methyl, ethyl, OH, that are easily fragmented from the ion.
Make sure you include the total predicted structure on your spectrum.

Respond to responses with a 100 words

1)Problem 10.49: Ethyl chloride (boiling point, 13 °C) is used as a local anesthetic. When the liquid is sprayed on the skin, it cools the skin enough to freeze and numb it. Explain the cooling effect of liquid ethyl chloride.
Answer: When Ethyl Chloride evaporates, it absorbs the heat from the hand which, in turn, makes the skin cooler.
Problem 10.76: Describe the crystal structure of Pt, which crystallizes with four equivalent metal atoms in a cubic unit cell.
Answer: Unit cells are simple, small, repeating, and have 3 types: simple crib, body-centered, and face-centered.
Simple cubic-atoms are present at the corners
Body-centered: atoms are present in the corners and the body center
Face-centered: atoms are present at the corners and center of each face
In a face-centered unit cell, 1/8 of an atom is present and 1/2 of an atom is present at the center of the face of every cube. The total number of atoms in a front-centered cubic cell is 4. Pt crystallizes with 4 atoms in a unit cell, so the crystal structure is face-centered cubic.
2)10.37- Why does spilled gasoline evaporate more rapidly on a hot day than a cold day?
Answer; When the outside temperature increases, the average kinetic energy of the collective molecules of gasoline increases more quickly because of the weak intermolecular attractions between the molecules, therefore allowing a greater number of molecules to gain sufficient energy to escape from the liquid as vapors.
10.95- As minerals were formed from molten magma, different ions occupied the same cities in the crystals. Lithium often occurs along with Magnesium in minerals despite the different charge of their ions. Suggest an explanation?
Answer: Since the arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice depends on the size of their cations, and Mg and Lithium have similar size cations, the Mg and Lithium ions can be easily interchanged without altering the structure of the crystals. Mg (2 ) and Lithium (1 ) often occur together in minerals despite the difference of their charged particles.

Lab summary for CHEM

Hello,
I need help in my lab summary, I’ve done the lab already I have the data table and everything done. I’ll include for you the lab handout that you will follow to do this lab summary. Also, in the handout you will find post lab questions that I need you to answer and but the questions and the answers in my lab summary. By the end of the lab handout that you will do the lab summary from you will find all the instructor for the lab summary. Pleas make sure to include the things that prof wants.

components bonding

How does the chemical bonding reacts on components when it interfaces with different solvents. Perform Analysis on bonding solvents with mixture of cyclohexanone (CHX) and Methylene Ethyl ketone (MEK) when interfacing bonds with ABS, PVC, PP, Teralux, Cryolite produced components. Please include graphs with different percentage of solvent mixture like 50% of CHX and 50% MEK, 70% CHX and 30% MEK, 100% CHX, 100% MEK on interface bonding’s. please provide conclusion which is the good bonding mixture percentage. What happens when Cyclo and MEK meet with below listed component materials.
2. PVC-Acrylic
3. Acrylic-MABS
4. MABS-MABS
5. MABS-PVC
6. PVC-PVC
7. PC-PVC
8.PC-MABS

Using t Online Library or the Internet, research chemical reactions in healthcare. On the basis of your resear

WK 4 CHM
Discussion Question 1
Using t Online Library or the Internet, research chemical reactions in healthcare. On the basis of your research, respond to the following:
What is the difference between biochemical, pharmaceutical, and diagnostic chemical reactions?
What is a specific example that exists for each and why might they be important to healthcare professionals?
List a balanced chemical equation for each and explain how it is used in your example above.
Identify the two important classes of catalysts and describe the difference between each.
Choose a catalyst that exists in the human body. Explain its importance and how it works.
Analyze the chemical reactions that take place when a biological catalyst combines with a reactant (substrate) to form an unstable intermediate.

An analysis of the properties of the neutral atom and its most common ion.

Wk 3 Disc
CHM 1010Discussion
Question 1
Using Online Library or the Internet, research any one element. On the basis of your research, provide:
An analysis of the properties of the neutral atom and its most common ion.
An explanation of the difference between the stabilities of the selected neutral atom and its most common ion.
A description of a process in the human body that is impacted differently by the neutral atom and its most common ion.
What are the differences between ionic and covalent compounds?
Describe two ways that covalent compounds are used in the human body.
How does the polarity of a molecule and a solvent impact solubility, and why might this be important?

I need a Response for the following

First In my opinion, selling oxytocin as cologne is just a trap from some big companies and only potential profit-making ideas, but in reality, it will not show any significant effects on people, the reason for this is-For oxytocin to work, it is desired that the chemical has to reach the brain because that is where oxytocin does its thing. But there is a blood-brain barrier in our body that doesn’t allow oxytocin to reach the brain.And this can only be done if someone directly sprays the oxytocin in someone’s nose or inject it into their blood, and obviously, these two conditions can’t be achieved by oxytocin cologne that is available on the market.So I believe it will not show any significant effect other than a normal perfume spray on a person.SecondOxytocin should not be used as a cologne. In my opinion, selling oxytocin as cologne is just a trap from some big companies and only potential profit-making ideas, but in reality, it will not show any significant effects on people, the reason for this is that oxytocin to work it is desired that the chemical has to reach the brain, because that is where oxytocin does its thing. But there is a blood-brain barrier in our body that doesn’t allow oxytocin to reach the brain. And this can only be done if someone directly sprays the oxytocin in someone’s nose or inject it into their blood and obviously these two conditions can’t be achieved by oxytocin cologne that is available on the market. So I believe it will not show any significant effect other than a normal perfume spray on a person. But in some if it works then it may help to create social bonding with others, it may also cause someone to feel differently toward another person. When such feelings get stronger, the persons having these feelings may sometimes get involved in criminal activities to fulfill the desire of mating. Also, when someone uses oxytocin as a cologne, it may provoke others to think that the person using it may be eager for mating. This may also result in unwanted circumstances for the person using it. Hence, it should not be produced and used as a cologne.